Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 3 Understanding the Consumer

DOI: 10.23912/9781915097132-5071

ISBN: 9781915097132

Published: March 2022

Component type: chapter

Published in: Customer Service for Hospitality and Tourism 3rd edn

Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781915097132-5067



In a highly competitive environment, customers increasingly expect service providers to anticipate their needs and deliver on them. It is therefore important that customer expectations are understood by those delivering customer service, and the opening spotlight provided an excellent example of a destination – the Maldives - totally in tune with customer expectations. Customers evaluate service quality by comparing what they expected with what they perceive they received from a particular service provider. If their expectations are met or exceeded, then customers will usually believe that they have received high quality service and they are more likely to remain loyal to that supplier. Customer expectations are likely to vary, even within the same sector. Travelers may expect a low level of service on an EasyJet short-haul flight across Europe, whereas they would expect much higher levels of service on a Singapore Airlines long-haul flight from Europe to the Far East. Expectations will also change over time; airline passengers have much lower expectations in terms of customer service than they did twenty years ago as flying has moved from being a luxury experience to more of a commodity. In general though, as suggested in Chapter 1, customers have higher demands than ever before (HubSpot, 2020; KPMG, 2016), and expectations seem to have been heightened by the COVID-19 pandemic (Stella Connect, 2021).


  • Dr. Simon Hudson, University of South Carolina (Author)
  • Louise Hudson, Freelance Journalist (Author)

For the source title:

  • Dr. Simon Hudson, University of South Carolina (Author)
  • Louise Hudson, Freelance Journalist (Author)

Cite as

Hudson & Hudson, 2022

Hudson, D.S. & Hudson, L. (2022) "Chapter 3 Understanding the Consumer" In: Hudson, D.S. & Hudson, L. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781915097132-5071


Andersson, T. D. and Mossberg, L. (2004) 'The dining experience: Do restaurants satisfy customer needs', Food Service Technology, 4, 171-177.


Anon. (2005) 'Travel for the Fifty Plus', Travelweek magazine, 26 May, p. 16.

Anon. (2010) 'New explorations', Spotlight, Vol. 501. Accessed 11/07/2011 from http://www.grouptour.com/spotlight/detail.php?recid=477&issue=501

Baginski, M. (2002) 'GC acquisition fills large G.A.P.' Accessed 10/10/2002 from http://www.canadatourism.com/en/ctc/ctx/ctxnews/search/newsbydateform.cfm

Bagozzi, R., Gopinath, M. and Nyer, P. (1999) 'The role of emotions in marketing', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science', 27, 184-206.


Bigne, J. E., Andreu, L. and Gnoth, J. (2005) 'The theme park experience: an analysis of pleasure, arousal and satisfaction', Tourism Management, 26, 833-844.


Boehmer, J. (2006) 'Las Vegas' McCarran, New York's LaGuardia top J.D. Power's airport customer satisfaction survey', Business Travel News, July 17.

Bowden, J.L.H. and Dagger, T.S. (2011) 'To delight or not to delight. An investigation of loyalty in the restaurant industry', Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(5), 501-524.


City Nation Place (2020) 'Restarting tourism in the Maldives: Interview with Thoyyib Mohamed', City Nation Place, 4 August. Accessed 08/08/2020 from https://www.citynationplace.com/restarting-tourism-in-the-maldives

Crosby, L. and Johnson, S. (2007) 'Experience REQUIRED', Marketing Management, 16(4), 20-28.

Deronzo, N. and Vespoli, L. (2016) 'The Hemi cruise special 2016', Hemispheres, December, 69-75.

Dunford, J. (2020) 'Things have to change': Tourism businesses look to a greener future. The Guardian, 28 May. Accessed 08/14/2021 from www.theguardian.com/travel/2020/may/28/things-had-to-change-tourism-businesses-look-to-a-greener-future

Elliott, J. (2021) 'The best restaurant reservation software for 2021,' Investopedia, 12 August. Accessed 08/14/2021 from https://www.investopedia.com/best-restaurant-reservation-software-5101754

Euromonitor International (2020) Coronavirus: Implications on Megatrends. Accessed 08/14/2021 from https://go.euromonitor.com/webinar-consumers-2020-covid-19- impact-on-megatrends.html

Fam, K-S., Cheng, B.L., Cham, T-H., Yi, M.T.C. and Ting, H. (2021) 'The role of cultural differences in customer retention: Evidence from the high-contact service industry', Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F10963480211014944


Ford, R.C. and Heaton, C.P. (2001) 'Lessons from hospitality that can serve anyone', Organizational Dynamics, 30(1), 30-47.


Gibbens, S. (2020) 'Will the sustainable travel movement survive coronavirus?' National Geographic, 21 April. Accessed 01/03/2021 from https://www.nationalgeographic. com/travel/2020/04/will-sustainable-travel-survive-coronavirus/

Hamdi, R. (2021) 'Asia destinations look to Indian tourists as Chinese remain home', Skift, 25 January. Accessed 02/02/2021 from https://skift.com/2021/01/25/asia-destinations-look-to-indian-tourists-as-chinese-remain-home/

Han, H., Black, K-J. and Barrett, B. (2010) 'A consumption emotion measurement devel- opment: A full-service restaurant setting', Service Industries Journal, 30(2), 299-320.


Hofstede, G.H. (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G.H. (2001) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (2 nd ed.), Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

HubSpot (2020) The State of Service in 2020. Accessed 08/01/2021 from https://offers. hubspot.com/state-of-customer-service

Hudson, S. (2008) Tourism and Hospitality Marketing: A Global Perspective. Sage, London.


Hudson, S. (2020) Covid-19 & Travel: Impacts, Responses and Outcomes. Goodfellow Publishers, Oxford.

Jones, C. (2011) '1 st -class fliers: safety first but next up is lie-flat seat', USA Today, 23 August, 6B.

Kim, S. (2014) ''Big Brother' airport installs world's first real-time passenger tracking system', The Telegraph, 29 July. Accessed 05/27/2017 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/news/Big-Brother-airport-installs-worlds-first-real-time-passenger-tracking-system/

KPMG (2016) Harnessing the Power of the Many, KPMG Nunwood Consulting Limited.

Ladhari, R. (2007) The effect of consumption emotions on satisfaction and word-of- mouth communications. Psychology & Marketing, 24(12), 1085-1108.


Lee, Y., Back, K. and Kim, J. (2009) 'Family restaurant brand personality and its impact on customer's emotion, satisfaction, and brand loyalty', Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(3), 305-328.


Lin, M-Q, Huang, L-S. and Chiang, Y-F. (2008) 'The moderating effects of gender roles on service emotional contagion', The Services Industries Journal, 28(6), 755-767.


Levy, S., Hudson, S. and Getz, D. (2011) 'A field experimental investigation of managerially facilitated consumer-to-consumer interaction, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 28(6), 656-674.


Manzur, L. and Jogaratnam, G. (2006) 'Impression management and the hospitality service encounter: Cross-cultural differences', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 20(3/4), 21-31.


Markus, M. and Kitayama, S. (1991) 'Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation', Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.


Marsella, A.J. (1998) 'Toward a "global community" psychology,' American Psychologist, 53, 1282-1291.


McMahan, D. (2021) 'Are ghost kitchens the future of the restaurant industry?' Today, 22 January. Accessed 07/20/2021 from https://www.today.com/food/are-ghost-kitchens-future-restaurant-industry-t202678

Medallia (2015) 'Understanding customer expectations in difference global cultures,' Medallia.com, 24 September. Accessed 08/15/2021 from https://www.medallia.com/blog/understanding-customer-expectations-in-different-global-cultures/

Mosley, R.W. (2007) 'Customer experience, organisational culture and the employer brand', Brand Management, 15(2), 123-134.


Namkung, Y. and Jang, C.S. (2010) 'Effects of perceived service fairness on emotions, and behavioral intentions in restaurants', European Journal of Marketing, 44(9/10), 1233-1259.


Netomi (2021) The State of Customer Service 2020. Accessed 08/05/2021 from https://www.netomi.com/customer-service-trends-netomi-pulse-report

Oliver, R., Rust, R. and Varki, S. (1997) 'Customer delight: Foundations, findings and managerial insight', Journal of Retailing, 73, 311-336.


Palmatier, R.W., Burke, C.B., Bechkoff, J.R. and Kardes, F.R. (2009) 'The role of gratitude in relationship marketing', Journal of Marketing, 73, 1-18.


Pawle, J. and Cooper, P. (2006) 'Measuring emotion - Lovemarks, the future beyond brands', Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 38-48.


Pine, B. J. II and Gilmore, J. H. (1998) 'Welcome to the experience economy', Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97-108.

Poon Tip, B. (2020) Unlearn. The Year the Earth Stood Still, accessed 11/01/2020 from https://unlearn.travel

Roberts, K. (2004) Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands, New York: Powerhouse Books.

Royal Caribbean (2016) 'Robot bartenders shake things up at sea', 20 Sept. Accessed 7/10/2017 from www.royalcaribbean.com/connect/robot-bartenders-shake-things-up-at-sea/

Stella Connect (2021) Customer Service Trends for 2021. Accessed 8/5/2021 from https://info.stellaconnect.com/ebook/customer-service-trends-for-2021

The South East Asia Travel Show (2021) 'Podcast: Interview with Ruth Franklin, Co-founder of Secret Paradise Maldives'. Accessed 01/02/2021 from https://www.asiatravelreset.com/podcast/

Travel Daily News (2021) 'Cruise industry to generate $6.6B in revenue in 2021, almost five times less than in 2019,' Travel Daily News, 8 June. Accessed 08/12/2021 from https://www.traveldailynews.com/post/cruise-industry-to-generate-66b-in-revenue- in-2021-almost-five-times-less-than-in-2019

Triandis, H. (1994) Culture and Social Behaviour, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Triandis, H. (1995) Individualism and Collectivism, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Triandis, H. (2001) 'Individualism and collectivism: Past, present and future', In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), Handbook of Culture and Psychology (pp. 35-50). New York: Oxford University Press.

Walls, A., Okumus, F., Wang, Y. and Kwun, D. J-W. (2011) 'Understanding the consumer experience: An exploratory study of luxury hotels', Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(2), 166-197.


Wang, E. S-T. (2009) 'Displayed emotions to patronage intention: consumer response to contact personal performance', The Service Industries Journal, 29(3), 317-329.


Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., Gremler, D., Mahaffey, T. and Hiltz, B. (2007) Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.A. and Parasuraman, A. (1993) 'The nature and determinants of customer expectations of service', Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 21(1), 1-12.



Chapter 3 Understanding the Consumer [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Customer Service for Hospitality and Tourism 3rd edn

Chapter 3 Understanding the Consumer [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback format [Details]Price: £39.99Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy