Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 4 Barriers to Youth Employment

DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-3357

ISBN: 978-1-910158-36-4

Published: November 2015

Component type: chapter

Published in: Youth Employment in Tourism and Hospitality

Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-2678



This chapter explores barriers to youth employment in the tourism and hospitality sector. It addresses this issue from both supply and demand perspectives. The supply side discusses perceptions of tourism employment while the demand side takes the perspective of business, trying to better understand the nature of demand for tourism employees, skills gaps and shortages, and attitudes towards employing young people specifically. The chapter concludes by describing a range of initiatives that target the barriers to youth employment in tourism.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


For the source title:

Cite as

Walmsley, 2015

Walmsley, A. (2015) "Chapter 4 Barriers to Youth Employment" In: Walmsley, A. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-3357


Adler, P. & Adler, P. (2004) Paradise Laborers. Hotel Work in the Global Economy, New York: Cornell University Press.

Airey, D. & Frontistis, A. (1997) Attitudes to careers in tourism: an Anglo Greek comparison. Tourism Management, 18 (3), 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00116-1

Aksu, A. & Köksal, D. (2005) Research in brief. Perceptions and attitudes of tourism students in Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 17 (5), 436-447. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110510604869

Barron, P., Maxwell, G., Broadbridge, A. & Ogden, S. (2007) Careers in hospitality management: Generation Y's experiences and perceptions. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 14 (2), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1375/jhtm.14.2.119

Battu, H., Belfield, C. R. & Sloane, P. J. (1999) Overeducation among graduates: a cohort view. Education Economics, 7 (1), 21-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645299900000002

BITC (2015) Asha's Story, http://www.bitc.org.uk/blog/post/giving-hope-survivors-human-trafficking-through-yci-–-asha [Accessed 16.08.15].

Boon, B. (2006) When leisure and work are allies: the case of skiers and tourist resort hotels. Career Development International, 11(7), 594-608. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430610713463

Burns, P. (1997) Hard-skills, soft-skills: undervaluing hospitality's 'service with a smile'. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3 (3), 239-248. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1603(199709)3:3<239::AID-PTH80>3.0.CO;2-2

Busby, G., Brunt, P. & Baber, S. (1997) Tourism sandwich placements: an appraisal. Tourism Management, 28 (2), 105-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00105-7

Chang, S. & Tse, E. C.-Y. (2012) Understanding the initial career decisions of hospitality graduates in Hong Kong: Quantitative and qualitative

Chevalier, A. & Lindley, J. (2007). Overeducation and the skills of UK graduates. Discussion Paper No.79. Centre for the Economics of Education, London School of Economics.

Chuang, N.-K. & Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (2010) Career decision-making and intention: a study of hospitality undergraduate students. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34 (4), 512-530. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348010370867

Chuang, N.-K., Goh, B., Stout, B. & Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (2007) Hospitality undergraduate students' career choices and factors influencing commitment to the profession. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 19 (4), 28-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/10963758.2007.10696902

Collins, A. B. (2002) Gateway to the real world, industrial training: dilemmas and problems. Tourism Management, 23 (1), 93-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00058-9

Dolton, P. & Silles, M. (2008) The effects of over-education on earnings in the graduate labour market. Economics of Education Review, 27 (2), 125-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2006.08.008

East Berkshire College (2015) Travel & Tourism courses. www.eastberks.ac.uk/courses/travel-and-tourism.html [Accessed 16.01.15]

Fidgeon, P. (2010) Tourism education and curriculum design: a time for consolidation and review? Tourism Management, 36 (1), 699-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.05.019

Finegold, D. & Soskice, D. (1988) The failure of training in Britain: Analysis and prescription. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 4 (3), 21-53. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/4.3.21

Foster, K. (2013) Generation and discourse in working life stories. British Journal of Sociology, 64(2), 195-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12014

Froy, F. (2013) Global policy developments towards industrial policy and skills: Skills for competitiveness and growth. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 29 (2), 344-360. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grt020

Goos, M. & Manning, A. (2003). Lousy and lovely jobs: the rising polarization of work in Britain. Working paper. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science

Gottfredson, L. S. (1981) Circumscription and compromise: A developmental theory of occupational aspirations. Journal of Counseling Psychology Monograph, 28 (6), 545-578. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.28.6.545

Griffiths, S. (2014). ITT 2014: Tourism minister warns industry to plug skills gap. Travel Trade Gazette Digital.

Grint, K. (1991) The Sociology of Work. An Introduction, Cambridge: Polity Press. Hilton Hotels. (2015) Global Corporate News. Available: http://news.hiltonworldwide.com/index.cfm/newsroom/detail/22722 [Accessed 26.03.15].

Hjalager, A.-M. & Andersen, S. (2000) Tourism employment: contingent work or professional career? Employee Relations, 23 (2), 114-129.

Hospitality Guild. (2015) Our hospitality partner organisation. Available: http://www.hospitalityguild.co.uk/partners/ [Accessed 23.03.15]. International Youth Foundation. (2015) Library. Available: http://library.iyfnet.org/sites/default/files/library/PTS_HW_Fact_Sheet.pdf [Accessed 26.03.15].

Jacobs, J. (1969) The Economy of Cities, New York: Random House.

Jenkins, A. K. (2001) Making a career of it? Hospitality students' future perspectives: an Anglo-Dutch study. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13 (1), 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110110365599

Keep, E. (2012). Youth Transitions, the Labour Market and Entry into Employment: Some Reflections and Questions. SKOPE Publications. Cardiff: SKOPE.

Korczynski, M. (2009) Understanding the contradictory lived experience of service work. In Korczynski, M. & Macdonald, C. (eds.) Service Work. Critical Perspectives. New York: Routledge.

Kusluvan, S. & Kusluvan, Z. (2000) Perceptions and attitudes of undergraduate tourism students towards working in the tourism industry in Turkey. Tourism Management, 21 (3), 251-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00057-6

Ladkin, A. (2002) Career analysis: a case study of hotel general managers in Australia. Tourism Management, 23 (4), 379-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00092-9

Mason, G. (2001). Mixed fortunes: Graduate utilisation in service industries. London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research.

Mason, G. (2002) High skills utilisation under mass higher education: graduate employment in service industries in Britain. Journal of Education and Work, 15 (4), 427-456. https://doi.org/10.1080/1363908022000023560

Meyer, J. (1977) The effects of education as an institution. American Journal of Sociology, 83 (1), 55-77. https://doi.org/10.1086/226506

Murag, D. (2012) Remera hospitality academy officially launched. Available: http://www.wda.gov.rw/node/50285 [Accessed 25.07.13].

News Uk (2013). The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide: New recruits are not job ready according to survey. News UK.

Oakland, S. & Oakland, J. (2001) Current people management activities in world-class organizations. Total Quality Management, 12 (6), 773-788. https://doi.org/10.1080/09544120120075370

Pacific Community Resources (2015) Baristas. Available: http://pcrs.ca/baristas [Accessed 04.04.15]

People 1st (2013). State of the Nation Report 2013. An analysis of labour market trends, skills, education and training within the UK hospitality and tourism industries. Uxbridge: People 1st.

Perkins, C. (2014). Migrants and jobless youth key to stemming the hospitality skills gap. Big Hospitality. Available: http://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Trends-Reports/Hospitality-skills-gap-migrants-youth

Peters, M. (2005) Entrepreneurial skills in leadership and human resource management evaluated by apprentices in small tourism businesses. Education + Training, 47 (8/9), 575-591. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910510633125

Phillips, J. (1998) Effects of realistic job previews on multiple organizational outcomes: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 41 (6), 673-690. https://doi.org/10.2307/256964

Poon, A. (1993) Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies, Wallingford: CAB.

Purcell, K., Elias, P. & Wilton, N. (2004). Research paper no. 3 - Higher Education, Skills and Employment: careers and jobs in the graduate labour market. Warwick: Employment Studies Research Unit, University of the West of England, & Warwick Institute of Employment Research.

Raybould, M. & Wilkins, H. (2005) Over qualified and under experienced. Turning graduates into hospitality managers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 17 (3), 203-216. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110510591891

Richardson, S. & Butler, G. (2012) Attitudes of Malaysian tourism and hospitality students towards a career in the industry. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17 (3), 262-276. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2011.625430

Roan, A. & Diamond, C. (2003) Starting out: The quality of working life of young workers in the retail and hospitality industries in Australia. International Journal of Employment Studies, 11 (2), 91-119.

Robinson, R., Ruhanen, L. & Breakey, N. (2015) Tourism and hospitality internships: influences on student career aspirations. Current Issues in Tourism 03/2015.

Roney, S. A. & Oztin, P. (2007) Career perceptions of undergraduate tourism students: A case study in Turkey' Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 6 (1). https://doi.org/10.3794/johlste.61.118

Springboard. (2015) Making a difference to people's lives. Available: http://www.charity.springboard.uk.net/ [Accessed 26.03.15].

Super, D. (1957) The Psychology of Careers, New York: Harper.

Schwalje, W. (2011). What is the Difference Between a Skills Gap and Skills Shortage? NORRAG NEWS, Towards a New Global World of Skills Development? TVET's turn to Make its Mark. 46, 44-46. Available: http://www.norrag.org

Thomas Cook (2014) www.youtube.com/watch?v=lY9tL5VuxLI [Accessed 29.11.14].

Travel Industry Careers Association. (2015). Why travel and tourism? Available: http://www.travelindustrycareers.org/why-travel-and-tourism.html [Accessed 11.01.15].

Turner, B. (1998) Ageing and generational conflicts: a reply to Sarah Irwin. The British Journal of Sociology, 49 (2), 299-304. https://doi.org/10.2307/591314

Verma, A. (2012). Skills for competitiveness: Country report for Canada. OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, OECD. https://doi.org/10.1787/5k9bb1vz5jhb-en

Walmsley, A. (2012) 'Pathways into tourism higher education'. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 11 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2012.02.015

Walmsley, A., Thomas, R. & Jameson, S. (2006) Surprise and sense making: undergraduate placement experiences in SMEs. Education + Training, 48 (5), 360-372. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910610677063

Wan, P., King, Y., Wong, A. & Kong, W. H. (2014) Student career prospect and industry commitment: The roles of industry attitude, perceived social status, and salary expectations. Tourism Management, 40 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.05.004

Wanous, J. P., Poland, T. D., Premack, S. L. & Davis, K. S. (1992) The effects of met expectations on newcomer attitudes and behaviors: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77 (3), 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.3.288

Wolf, A. (2011). Review of Vocational Education. - The Wolf Report. Department for Education and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180504/DFE-00031-2011.pdf

WTTC (2013). A Career in Travel & Tourism. London: World Travel and Tourism Council.

Yorke, M. (2006). Employability in higher education: what it is – what it is not. Learning and Employability, Series One. York: The Higher Education Academy.

Youth for the Future. (2015) Youth Work Jordan. Available: www.youthworkjordan.org [Accessed 27.03.15].


Chapter 4 Barriers to Youth Employment [Details]Price: €6.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Youth Employment in Tourism and Hospitality

Chapter 4 Barriers to Youth Employment [Details]Price: €6.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback format [Details] Available as an inspection copyPrice: €50.00Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy