Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 4 Musicians

DOI: 10.23912/978-1-908999-52-8-2262

ISBN: 978-1-908999-52-8

Published: May 2013

Component type: chapter

Published in: Music, Markets and Consumption

Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-908999-52-8-2009



Being a musician can be like playing the Lottery – many try it, almost all enjoy the thrill, but very few win the jackpot. The reasons why someone decides to become a musician can be puzzling: it offers irregular and, on average, rather low income, is a competitive job market with low barriers to entry, entails a need to rely on financial support from others and the necessity to subsidise artistic work by taking jobs outside the music industry, and relies on self-proclaimed music experts who vote with their money and can make or break the musician’s career. And although practically everyone, at some point in their lives, has known at least one person who has claimed to be a musician, still only one out of thousands achieve any financial stability. Of those lucky ones who sign up with a record company, only about 5% break even (Seifert and Hadiba, 2006), and those who manage their own careers often end up spending more time on non-musical activities then they do actually playing music. Most musicians find it impossible to support themselves from their creative work alone. The old economic models tell us that no rationally thinking individual should decide to become a musician (Nagel, 1988).

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


  • Dr Daragh O’Reilly, University of Sheffield (Author)
  • Dr Gretchen Larsen, King’s College London (Author)
  • Dr Krzysztof Kubacki, Griffith University (Author)

For the source title:

  • Dr Daragh O’Reilly, University of Sheffield (Author)
  • Dr Gretchen Larsen, King’s College London (Author)
  • Dr Krzysztof Kubacki, Griffith University (Author)

Cite as

O’Reilly, Larsen & Kubacki, 2013

O’Reilly, D.D., Larsen, D.G. & Kubacki, D.K. (2013) "Chapter 4 Musicians" In: O’Reilly, D.D., Larsen, D.G. & Kubacki, D.K. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-908999-52-8-2262


dorno, T.W. (1962) Einleitung in die Musiksoziologie. Zwölf Theoretische Vorlesungen, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.

Adorno, T.W. and Horkheimer, M. (1973) Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. John Cumming, London: Allen Lane.

Attali, J. (1985) Noise: The Political Economy of Music, trans. Brian Massumi, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bain, A. (2005) 'Constructing an artistic identity', Work, Employment and Society, 19 (1), 25-46.


Baumol, W.J. and Bowen, W.G. (1965) 'On the performing arts: the anatomy of their economic problems', The American Economic Review, 55 (1/2), 495-502.

Becker, H. (1951) 'The professional dance musician and his audience', American Journal of Sociology, 57 (2), 136-144.


Becker, H. (1997) Outsiders: Studies in Sociology of Deviance, new ed., New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Ltd.

Bradshaw, A., and Holbrook, M.B. (2007) 'Remembering Chet: theorising the mythology of the self-destructive bohemian artist as self-producer and self- consumer in the market for romanticism', Marketing Theory, 7 (2), 115-136.


Bradshaw, A., McDonagh, P., Marshall, D. and Bradshaw, H. (2005) '"Exiled music herself, pushed to the edge of existence": the experience of musicians who perform background music', Consumption, Markets and Culture, 8 (3), 219-239.


Brandfonbrener, A.G. (1994) 'Just what is an "amateur" musician?', Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 9 (3), 61-62.

Brodsky, M. (1995) 'Blues musicians' access to health care', Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 10 (1), 18-23.

Brodsky, W. (2006) 'In the wings of British orchestras: A multi-episode interview study among symphony players', Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 673-690.


Burgoyne, N. (1990) 'Status of the artist information session', Art Bulletin, 14, 28-30.


Campbell, P.S. (1995) 'Of garage bands and song-getting: the musical development of young rock-musicians', Research Studies in Music Education, 4, 12-20.


Clawson, M.A. (1999) 'Masculinity and skill acquisition in adolescent rock band', Popular Music, 18 (1), 99-114.


Cook, N. (1998) Music: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cottrell, S. (2002) 'Music as capital: deputising among London's freelance musicians', British Journal of Ethnomusicology, 11 (ii), 61-80.


Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996) Creativity, New York: HarperCollins.

Dennis, N. and Macaulay, M. (2006) 'Marketing and jazz - the views of leading jazz musicians', Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Conference, Middlesex University Business School, London, 3-6 July.

Drinker, H.S. (1967) 'Amateurs and music', Music Education Journal, 9, 75-78.


Eckstein, L. (2009) 'Torpedoing the authorship of popular music: a reading of Gorillaz' "Feel Good Inc."', Popular Music, 28 (2), 239-255.


Ericsson, K.A., Tesch-Romer, C. and Krampe, R.T. (1993) 'The role of practice and motivation in the acquisition of expert-level performance in real life: an empirical evaluation of a theoretical framework', in Howe, M.J.A. (ed.), Encouraging the Development of Exceptional Abilities and Talents, Leicester: The British Psychological Society.


Ferguson, H. (2002) 'In search of bandhood: consultation with original music groups', Group, 26, 4, 267-282.


Fillis, I. (2006) 'Art for art's sake or art for business sake: An exploration of artistic product orientation', The Marketing Review, 6 (1), 29-40.


Fornäs, J., Lindberg, U. and Sernhede, O. (1995) In Garageland: Rock, Youth and Modernity, London: Routledge.

Frith, S. and Horne, H. (1987) Art into Pop, London: Methuen & Co.

Gaser, Ch. and Schlaug, G. (2003) 'Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians', The Journal of Neuroscience, 23 (27), 9240-9245.


Gillespie, W. and Myors, B. (2000) 'Personality of rock musicians', Psychology of Music, 28, 154-165.


Glynn, M.A. (2000) 'When cymbals become symbols: conflict over organizational identity within a symphony orchestra', Organization Science, 11 (3), 285-298.


Goldstuck, C. (2001) 'Industry must act now to prosper', Music Business International, 11 (6), 50.

Gray, C.M. (1986) 'The economics of arts labor markets: an overview', Artists and Cultural Consumers, in Shaw, D.V., Hendon, W.S. and Waits, C.R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cultural Economics, Avignon, France: Association for Cultural Economics, III, 66-76.

Groce, S.B. (1989) 'Occupational rhetoric and ideology: a comparison of copy and original music performers', Qualitative Sociology, 12 (4), 391-410.


Hirschman, E.C. (2010) 'Bluegrass revival. Marketing and authenticity in the hill of Appalachia', in O'Reilly, D. and Kerrigan, F. (ed.) Marketing the Arts: a Fresh Approach, London: Routledge, 171-189.

Holbrook, M.B. (2005) 'Art versus commerce as a macromarketing theme in three films from the young-man-with-a-horn genre', Journal of Macromarketing, 25 (1), 22-31.


Hollerbach, P. (2004) '(Re)voicing tradition: improvising aesthetics and identity on local jazz scenes', Popular Music, 23 (2), 155-171.


Jamieson, D. (2007) 'Marketing androgyny: the evolution of the Backstreet Boys', Popular Music, 26 (2), 245-258.


Juniu, S., Tedrick, T. and Boyd, R. (1996) 'Leisure or work?: amateur and professional musicians' perception of rehearsal and performance', Journal of Leisure Research, 28 (1), 44-56.


Keightley, K. (2001) 'Reconsidering rock', in Frith, S. and Straw, W. and Street, J. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 109-142.


Keister, J. and Smith, J.L. (2008) 'Musical ambition, cultural accreditation and the nasty side of progressive rock', Popular Music, 27 (3), 433-455.


Kemp, A.E. (1996) The Musical Temperament: Psychology and Personality of Musicians, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Keyes, C.J. (2000) 'Empowering self, making choices, creating spaces: black female identity via rap music performance', The Journal of American Folklore, 113 (449), 255-269.


Kirschbaum, C. (2007) 'Careers in the right beat: US jazz musicians' typical and non-typical trajectories', Career Development International, 12 (2), 187-201.


Kubacki, K. and Croft, R. (2011) 'Markets, music and all that jazz', European Journal of Marketing, 45 (5), 805-821.


Lankford, M. (1997) Life in Double Time: Confessions of an American Drummer, San Francisco: Chronicle Books.

Leach, E.E. (2001) 'Vicars of 'Wannabe': authenticity and the Spice Girls', Popular Music, 20 (2), 143-167.


Lotze M., Scheler G., Tan H.R., Braun C. and Birbaumer N. (2003) 'The musician's brain: functional imaging of amateurs and professionals during performance and imagery', Neuroimage, 20, 1817-1829.


Lund, N.L. and Kranz, P.L. (1994) 'Notes on emotional components of musical creativity and performance', Journal of Psychology, 128, 635-640.MacDonald,


R.A.R. and Wilson, G.B. (2005) 'Musical identities of professional jazz musicians: a focus group investigation', Psychology of Music, 33 (4), 395-417.


Madiot, B. (1996) 'Identité sociale et positionnement dans le champ professionel: le cas des musiciens de jazz', Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 32, 33-53.

Meamber, L.A. (2000) 'Artist becomes/becoming artistic: the artist as producer- consumer', Advances in Consumer Research, 27, 44-49.

Miles, S. (2000) Consumerism as a Way of Life, London: Sage Publications.

Mullen, K. (1987) 'Audience orientation and the occupational rhetoric of public house performers', Popular Music and Society, 11, 15-29.


Murnighan, J.K. and Conlon, D.E. (1991) 'The dynamics of intense work groups: A study of British string quartets', Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 165-186.


Nagel, J.J. (1988) 'Identity and career choice in music', Journal of Cultural Economics, 12 (2), 67-76.


Negus, K. (1995) 'Where the mystical meets the market: creativity and commerce in the production of popular music', Sociological Review, 43 (2), 316-341.


Niketta, R. (1998) 'Rock musicians in Germany and ideas for their promotion', Popular Music, 17 (3), 311-325.


O'Reilly, D. and Kubacki, K. (2009) 'Arts marketing is what you can get away with', Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej (Folia Scientiarum Universitatis Technicae Resoviensis): ZarzÄ…dzanie i Marketing, 260 (16), 125-131.

Oxford English Dictionary (2012) 'Musician', Available online: http:// oxforddictionaries.com/definition/musician?q=musician, [Accessed: 10 May 2012].

Raeburn, S.D. (1987) 'Occupational stress and coping in a sample of rock musicians', Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 2 (2), 41-48.

Salmen, W. (ed.) (1983) The Social Status of the Professional Musicians for the Middle Ages to the 19th Century, New York: Paragon Press.

Sanjek, R. and Sanjek, D. (1991) American Popular Music Business in the 20th Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Seifert, M. and Hadiba, A.L. (2006) 'Facilitating talent selection decisions in the music industry', Management Decision, 44 (6), 790-808.


Sicca, L.M. (2000) 'Chamber music and organisation theory: Some typical organisational phenomena seen under the microscope', Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 6, 145-168.


Sichivitsa, V.O. (2007) 'The influences of parents, teachers, peers and other factors on students' motivation in music', Research Studies in Music Education, 29, 55-68.


Simonton, D.K. (2007) 'Cinema composers: career trajectories for creative productivity in film music', Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1 (3), 160-169.


Sloboda, J.A., Davidson, J.W., Howe, M.J.A. and Moore, D.G. (1996) 'The role of practice in the development of professional musicians', British Journal of Psychology, 87, 287-309.


Smart, B. (ed.) (1999) Resisting McDonaldization, London: Sage Publications.

Smith, K. and Berg, D. (1987), Paradoxes of Group Life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Söderman, J. and Folkestad, G. (2004) 'How hip-hop musicians learn: strategies in informal creative music making', Music Education Research, 6 (3), 313-326.


Stahl, M. (2002) 'Authentic boy bands on TV? Performers and impresarios in The Monkees and Making the Band', Popular Music, 21 (3), 307-329.


Stebbins, R. (1966) 'Class, status and power among commercial jazz musicians, Sociological Quarterly, 7, 197-213.


Stebbins, R.A. (1977) 'The amateur: two sociological definitions', Pacific Sociological Review, 20, 582-606.


Taylor, J. (1987) 'Tango', Cultural Anthropology, 2 (4), 481-493.


Wassall, G.H. and Alper, N. (1984) 'Determinants of artists' earnings', in Hendon, W.S., Grant, N.K. and Shaw, D.V. (ed.), The Economics of Cultural Industries, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cultural Economics, 1, 213-230.

Wicke, P. (1990) Rock Music: Culture, Aesthetics and Sociology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Wilson, G.B. and MacDonald, R.A.R. (2005) 'The meaning of the blues: musical identities in talk about jazz', Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, pp. 341-363.


Williamson, A. and Valentine, E. (2000) 'Quantity and quality of musical practice as predictors of performance quality', British Journal of Psychology, 91, 353- 376.


van Elderem, P.L. (1984) 'Music and meaning behind the Dykes: the new wave of Dutch rock groups and their audiences', Popular Music, 4, 97-116.


Zwaan, K., ter Bogt, T. F. M. and Raaijmakers, Q. A. W. (2010) 'Career trajectories of Dutch pop musicians: A longitudinal study', Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 77, 10-20.



Chapter 4 Musicians [Details]Price: £4.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Music, Markets and Consumption

Chapter 4 Musicians [Details]Price: £4.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback edition [Details]Price: £39.99Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy