Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 3 The Nature of Youth Employment

DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-3352

ISBN: 978-1-910158-36-4

Published: November 2015

Component type: chapter

Published in: Youth Employment in Tourism and Hospitality

Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-2678



Roan and Diamond (2003) claim that labour market policy in Australia has focussed on the provision of employment and the preparation of young people for employment but entirely neglected quality of working life issues. The same may be said for other developed economies’ labour market policies. In the anguish to get young people into work, which is understandable given the youth unemployment crisis, the nature of work itself has, until recently at least, rarely been questioned. In the run up to the May 2015 UK general election, rival parties were at loggerheads over the nature of jobs being created in the economy, with the ruling coalition parties pointing to the fall in unemployment and the opposition arguing that many of these jobs were barely paying the minimum wage and that furthermore many of the jobs now being offered were on zero-hour contracts and also on casual contracts, which are ones where the employer can hire staff without the guarantee of work. Suddenly the nature of work reappeared on policy makers’ agendas and this, coupled with tourism’s admittedly poor reputation as an employer, suggests the need for a closer look at the nature of youth employment in the sector. Consequently, this chapter presents and discusses different characteristics of youth employment in tourism and hospitality. It aims to provide an insight into the experience of youth employment as well as reviewing the role of trade unions in improving working conditions for young people. The chapter also addresses separately the nature of youth employment in developing countries, and concludes with a review of the relationship between responsible tourism and youth employment.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


For the source title:

Cite as

Walmsley, 2015

Walmsley, A. (2015) "Chapter 3 The Nature of Youth Employment" In: Walmsley, A. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-3352


Adam, M. S. & Urquhart, C. (2007) IT capacity building in developing countries: A model of the Maldivian tourism sector. Information Technology for Development, 13 (4), 315-335. https://doi.org/10.1002/itdj.20065

Akgeyik, T. & Meltem, G. (2008) Profile of victims of customer aggression: case of call-center and retail workers. European Journal of Management, 8 (4).

Ateljevic, I. & Doorne, S. (2000) Staying within the fence: Lifestyle entrepreneurship in tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8 (5), 378-392. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580008667374

Bacon, N., Ackers, P., Storey, D. J. & Coates, D. (1996) It's a small world: managing human resources in small businesses. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7 (1), 82-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585199600000119

Barney, J. (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108

Barry, K. (2007) Feminity in Flight: A History of Flight Attendants, London: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822389507

Battersby, D. (1990). Lifting the barriers. Employment and training in tourism and leisure. Insights, 1,D7-1–D7-8. English Tourist Board.

Baum, T. (2007) Human resources in tourism: Still waiting for change. Tourism Management, 28 1383-1399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.04.005

Becker, G. (1975) Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with special reference to education, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Belhassen, Y. & Caton, K. (2011) On the need for critical pedagogy in tourism education. Tourism Management, 32 1389-1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.014

Benckendorff, P., Moscardo, G. & Murphy, L. (2012) Environmental attitudes of Generation Y students: Foundations for sustainability education in tourism. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 12 (1), 44-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/15313220.2012.650063

Blair, M. (1998) For whom should corporations be run?: An economic rationale for stakeholder management. Long Range Planning, 31 (2), 195-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-6301(98)00003-X

Boella, M. & Goss-Turner, S. (2013) Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry. A Guide to Best Practice, London: Routledge.

Boeve-De Pauw, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2010) A cross-national perspective on youth environmental attitudes. Environmentalist, 30 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-009-9253-1

Bolton, S. & Boyd, C. (2003) Trolley dolly or skilled emotion manager? moving on from Hochschild's Managed Heart. Work, Employment and Society, 17 (2), 289-308. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017003017002004

Boon, B. (2006) When leisure and work are allies: The case of skiers and tourist resort hotels. Career Development International, 11 (7), 594-608. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430610713463

Bowen, H. R. (1953) Social Responsibilities of the Businessman, New York: Harper & Row.

Brunet, S., Bauer, J., De Lacy, T. & Tshering, K. (2001) Tourism development in Bhutan: Tensions between tradition and modernity. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9 (3), 243-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580108667401

Burrows, R. & Curran, J. (1989) Sociological research on service sector small businesses: Some conceptual considerations. Work, Employment and Society, 3 (4), 527-539. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017089003004007

Busby, G. (2003) The concept of sustainable tourism within the higher education curriculum: A British case study. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 2 (2), 48-58. https://doi.org/10.3794/johlste.22.57

Byers, T. & Slack, T. (2001) Strategic decision-making in small businesses within the leisure industry. Journal of Leisure Research, 33 (2), 121-136.

Cobble, D. S. & Merrill, M. (2009) The promise of service worker unionism. In Korczynski, M. & MacDonald, C. (eds.) Service Work: Critical Perspectives. Abingdon: Taylor and Francis.

Cukier-Snow, J. & Wall, G. (1993) Tourism employment: Perspectives from Bali. Tourism Management, 14 (3), 195-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(93)90020-L

D'Sa, E. (1999) Wanted: Tourists with a social conscience. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11 (2/3), 64-68. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596119910250670

De Kadt, E. (1979) Tourism: Passport to Development?, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Di Domenico, M. L. (2005) Producing hospitality, consuming lifesytles: Lifestyle entrepreneurship in urban Scotland. In Jones, E. & Haven-Tang, C. (eds.) Tourism SMEs, Service Quality and Destination Competitiveness. Wallingford: CABI. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851990118.0109

Dietz, G. (2012). How to rebuild trust in business. The Guardian, 26th March 2012.

Doherty, L. (2004) Work-life balance initiatives: implications for women. Employee Relations, 26 (4), 433-452. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450410544524

Doxey, G. V. (1976) When enough's enough: the natives are restless in Old Nicaragua. Heritage Canada, 2 (2), 26-27.

Durkheim, E. (1933) The Division of Labour in Society: Glencoe, Ill.

EFFAT (2015). McJobs: Big Mac, Small paychecks ! McDonalds' worldwide abusive employment practices exposed. Available: www.effat.org/en/node/13957

Elkington, J. (1994) Cannibals with Forks: the Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business, Oxford: Capstone.

Eur-Lex (2015) Protection of the dignity of women and men at work. European Commission. Available: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=URISERV:c10917a [Accessed 23.07.15].

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2008). Protecting workers in hotels, restaurants and catering. Available: https://osha.europa.eu/en/tools-and-publications/publications/reports/TE7007132ENC_horeca

Fennell, D. (2008) Responsible tourism: A Kierkegaardian interpretation. Tourism Recreation Research, 33 (1), 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2008.11081285

Flohr (2001) An analysis of British postgraduate courses in tourism: What role does sustainability play within higher education? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9 (6), 505-513.

Font, X., Walmsley, A., Coggoti, S., Mccombes, L. & Häusler, N. (2012) Corporate social responsibility: the disclosure-performance gap. Tourism Management, 33 (6), 1544-1533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.012

Fortune (2015) 100 best companies to work for. Available: http://fortune.com/best-companies [Accessed 30.04.15].

Fox, A. (1976) The Meaning of Work. Unit 6. People and Work, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Friedman, T. (2005) The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.

Getz, D. (1994) Students' work experiences, perceptions and attitudes towards careers in hospitality and tourism: A longitudinal case study in Spey Valley, Scotland. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 13 (1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4319(94)90057-4

Giddings, B., Hopwood, B. & O'Brien, G. (2002) Environment, economy and society: Fitting them together into sustainable development. Sustainable Development, 10 (4), 187-196. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.199

Gilbert, D., Guerrier, Y. & Guy, J. (1998) Sexual harassment issues in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 10 (2), 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596119810207183

Goffee, R. & Scase, R. (1980) The Real World of the Small Business Owner, London: Croom Helm.

Goodwin, H. (2011) Taking Responsibility for Tourism, Oxford: Goodfellow Publishing Ltd.

Goss, D. (1991) Small Business and Society, London: Routledge.

Grandey, A., Dickter, D. & Sin, H.-P. (2004) 'The customer is not always right: customer aggression and emotional regulation of service employees'. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25 (3), 397-418. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.252

Graver, A. & Harrison, J. (2002). A skills development strategy for the tourism and cultural industries in South East England. 'Putting the Pieces Together'. Havant: Impact Research Limited.

Great Place to Work (2015) About Us. Available: http://www.greatplacetowork.com.au/about-us [Accessed 30.04.15].

Grint, K. (1991) The Sociology of Work. An Introduction, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Grove, S., Fisk, R. & Joby, J. (2004) Surviving in the age of rage. Marketing Management, 13 (2), 41-47.

Halvorsen, S. (2012) 'Beyond the network? Occupy London and the Global Movement'. Social Movement Studies, 11 (3-4), 427-433. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.708835

Harrill, R. (2004) Residents'attitudes towardtourism development: A literaturereview with implications fortourism planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 18 (1), 1-16.

Harris-White, B. (2010) Work and wellbeing in informal economies: The regulative roles of institutions of identity and the state. World Development, 38 (2), 170-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.10.011

Hertz, N (2015) Generation K: what it means to be a teen, Financial Times, 17 April. Available: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1642f9d2-e3ac-11e4-9a82-00144feab7de.html

Hesketh, A. J. (2000) Recruiting an elite? Employers' perceptions of graduate education and training. Journal of Education and Work, 13 (3), 245-271. https://doi.org/10.1080/713676992

Hochschild, A. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Ineson, E., Yap, M. & Whiting, G. (2013) Sexual discrimination and harassment in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.04.012

Ingham, G. (1970) Size of Industrial Organization and Worker Behaviour, Cambridge: Cambridge at the University Press.

Inglehart, R. (1995) Public support for environmental protection: Objective problems and subjective values in 43 societies. Political Science and Politics, 28 (1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049096500056080

Iverson, R. D. & Deery, M. (1997) Turnover culture in the hospitality industry. Human Resource Management Journal, 7 (4), 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.1997.tb00290.x

Jafari, J. (2001) The scientification of tourism. In: Smith, V. L. & Brent, M. (eds.) Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century. Cognizant.

Jithendran, K. J. & Baum, T. (2000) Human resources development and sustainability - the case of Indian tourism. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2 403-421. https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-1970(200011/12)2:6<403::AID-JTR239>3.0.CO;2-3

Johnson, K. (1981) Towards an understanding of labour turnover. Service Industries Review, 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642068100000002

Kane, L. (2015) Minimum Wages around the World. Business Insider UK. Available: http://uk.businessinsider.com/minimum-wage-around-the-world-2015-5 [Accessed 28.05.15].

Korczynski, M. (2009) Understanding the contradictory lived experience of service work. In Korczynski, M. & MacDonald, C. (eds.) Service Work. Critical Perspectives. New York: Routledge.

Krakover, S. (2000) Partitioning seasonal employment in the hospitality industry. Tourism Management, 21 (4), 461-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00101-6

Krippendorf, J. (1987) The Holiday Makers. Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel, London: Heinemann.

Kusluvan, S., Kusluvan, Z., Ilhan, I. & Lutfi, B. (2010) The human dimension :A review of human resources management issues in the tourism and hospitality industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51 (2), 171-214. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965510362871

Lashley, C. (2005). Student employment patterns in Nottingham's tourism sector: A research report for East Midlands Tourism. Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University Centre for Leisure Retailing.

Lee-Ross, D. & Pryce, J. (2010) Human Resources and Tourism: Skills, Culture and Industry, Oxford: Channel View Publications.

Lee, J. (2001) Education for technology readiness: Prospects for developing countries. Journal of Human Development, 2 (1), 115-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649880120050

Lee, M-D. P. (2008) A review of the theories of corporate social responsibilty: Its evolutionary path and the road ahead. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10 (1), 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00226.x

Lemmink, J., Annelien, S. & Streukens, S. (2003) The role of corporate image and company employment image in explaining application intentions. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24 (1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(02)00151-4

Lin, Y.-H. (2006) The incidence of sexual harassment of students while undergoing practicum training experience in the Taiwanese hospitality industry—individuals' reactions and relationships to perpetrators. Tourism Management, 27 51-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.06.018

Littlejohn, D. & Watson, S. (2004) Developing graduate managers for hospitality and tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16 (7), 408-414. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110410559096

Liu, A. & Liu, H.-H. (2008) Tourism employment issues in Malaysia. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 7 (2), 163-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332840802156907

Liu, A. & Wall, G. (2006) Planning tourism employment: a developing country perspective. Tourism Management, 27 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.08.004

Lockwood, D. (1966) Sources of variation in working class images of society. Sociological Review, 4 (2), 249-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1966.tb01164.x

Lucas, R. (2004) Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries, London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203644553

Margolis, J. D. & Walsh, J. P. (2003) Misery loves companies: Rethinking social initiatives by business. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48 268-305. https://doi.org/10.2307/3556659

Maskell, D. & Robinson, I. (2001) The New Idea of a University, London: Haven Books.

Mathieson, A. & Wall, G. (1982) Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts, Harlow: Longman.

Mcguire, J. W. (1963) Business and Society, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Miller, E., Van Megen, K. & Buys, L. (2012) Diversification for sustainable development in rural and regional Australia: How local community leaders conceptualise the impacts and opportunities from agriculture, tourism and mining. Rural Society, 22 (1), 2-16. https://doi.org/10.5172/rsj.2012.22.1.2

Mkono, M. (2010) Zimbabwean hospitality students' experiences of sexual harassment in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29 729-735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.03.002

Monterrubio, C. & Espinosa, B. (2013) Characterisation of ecotourism employment in a developing world destination. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 11 (1), 54-65.

Morgan, M. (2004) From production line to drama school: Higher education for the future of tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16 (2), 91-99. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110410519973

Morrison, A. & Teixeira, R. (2004) Small business performance: a tourism sector focus. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11 (4), 166-173. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000410537100

Murphy, P. E. (1981) Community attitudes to tourism. A comparative analysis. Tourism Management, 2 (2), 189-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/0143-2516(81)90005-0

Murray, S. (2007). Bottom-line benefits special award corporate social responsibility: Ethical concerns are a growing factor in staff motivation. Financial Times, 2 May 2007.

Nickson, D., Warhurst, C. & Dutton, E. (2005) The importance of attitude and appearance in the service encounter in retail and hospitality. Managing Service Quality, 15 (2), 195-208. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520510585370

Okumus, F., Sariisik, M. & Naipaul, S. (2010) Understanding why women work in 5-star hotels in a developing country and their work-related problems. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 11 (1), 76-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480903539693

Oxford Dictionaries. (2015) Aesthetic. Available: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/aesthetic [Accessed 16.02.15].

Pfeffer, J. (2010) Building sustainable organizations: The human factor. Academy of Management Perspectives, 34-35. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2010.50304415

Pickety, T. (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674369542

Piore, M. J. & Sabel, C. F. (1984) The Second Industrial Divide, New York: Basic Books.

Pithers, R. T. & Soden, R. (2000) Critical thinking in education: a review. Educational Research, 42 (3), 237-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/001318800440579

Poddar, A. & Madupalli, R. (2012) Problematic customers and turnover intentions of customer service employees. Journal of Services Marketing, 26 (7), 551-559. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876041211266512

Prospects (2014) www.prospects.ac.uk [Accessed 20.04.14]

QAA (2008) Subject Benchmark Statements for Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism. Quality Assurance Agency. Available: http://www.qaa.ac.uk/en/Publications/Documents/Subject-benchmark-statement-Hospitality-leisure-sport-tourism-2008.pdf

Rainnie, A. (1989) Industrial Relations in Small Firms. Small Isn't Beautiful, London: Routledge.

Random House Dictionary Online. (2015) McJobs. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mcjob [Accessed 31.05.15].

Rhode Island Department of Labor and Training. (2015) Labor Market Information. Available: http://www.dlt.ri.gov/lmi/laus/us/usadj.htm [Accessed 30.05.15].

Riley, M., Ladkin, A. & Szivas, E. (2002) Tourism Employment. Analysis and Planning., Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

Ring, A., Dickinger, A. & Wöber, K. (2009) Designing the idel undergraduate program in tourism: expectations from industry and edcuators. Journal of Travel Research, 48 (1), 106-121. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287508328789

Roan, A. & Diamond, C. (2003) Starting out: The quality of working life of young workers in the retail and hospitality industries in Australia. International Journal of Employment Studies, 11 (2), 91-119.

Roberts, J. (2009) Bouncers and barroom aggression: A review of the research. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 14 (1), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.10.002

Rowley, G. & Purcell, K. (2001) 'As cooks go, she went': is labour churn inevitable? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20 (2), 163-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4319(00)00050-5

Rynes, S. L. (1991) Recruitment, job choice, and posthire consequences: A call for new research directions. In Dunnette, M. & Hough, L. (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Pscyhology Press.

Scott, B. (1998) Workplace violence in the UK hospitality industry: impacts and recommendations. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4 (4), 337-347. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1603(199812)4:4<337::AID-PTH148>3.0.CO;2-M

Seagrave, K. (2000) Age Discrimination by Employers, Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Shaw, G. & Williams, A. (2004) From lifestyle consumption to lifestyle production: Changing patterns of tourism entrepreneurship. In Thomas, R. (ed.) Small Firms in Tourism. International Perspectives. London: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-044132-0.50010-1

Sheldon, P., Fesenmaier, D., Woeber, K., Cooper, C. & Antonioli, M. (2008) Tourism education futures: 2010-2030 building the capacity to lead. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 8 (3), 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/15313220801909445

Soltis, J. (1968) An Introduction to the Analysis of Educational Concepts, Reading: Addison Wesley.

Sprinkle, G. & Maines, L. (2010) The benefits and costs of corporate social responsibility. Business Horizons, 53 445-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2010.05.006

Srinivas, S. (2014) CEO pay rises at double the rate of workers . The Guardian. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/money/2014/dec/05/save-jobs-numbers-companies-big-salaries-perks-executives [Accessed 26.07.15].

Stiglitz, J. (2002) Globalization and its Discontents, New York: WW Norton.

Stobart, L. (2014). Whatever happened to the Indignados? Radical Struggle.

Sunday Times (2015) The Sunday Times Best 100 Companies. Available: http://features.thesundaytimes.co.uk/public/best100companies/live/template [Accessed 30.04.15].

Szivas, E. & Riley, M. (1999) Tourism employment during economic transition. Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (4), 747-771. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00035-3

Thin (2002) Social Progress and Sustainable Development, Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.

Thomas, R. (1998) An introduction to the study of small tourism and hospitality firms. In Thomas, R. (ed.) The Management of Small Tourism and Hospitality Firms. London: Cassell.

Torrington, D. & Hall, L. (1998) Human Resource Management, London: Prentice Hall.

Tribe, J. (2002) The philosophic practitioner. Annals of Tourism Research, 29 (2), 338-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00038-X

Turban, D. & Greening, D. (1997) Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy of Management Journal, 40 (3), 658-672. https://doi.org/10.2307/257057

Turner, L. & Ash, J. (1975) The Golden Hordes: International Tourism and the Pleasure Periphery, New York: St Martin's Press.

Tyson, S. & York, A. (2001) Essentials of HRM, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

UNDP (2011). Discussion Paper. Tourism and Poverty Reduction Strategies in the Integrated Framework for Least Developed Countries. Geneva: United Nations Development Programme. Available: http://unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/undp_discussion_paper_tourism_and_poverty_reduction_strategies_in_the_integrated_framework_for_least_developed_countries.pdf

UNDP (2014a) Human Development Index. Available: hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi-table [Accessed 18.04.15].

UNDP (2014b) Republic of Yemen Project Report. Available: http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/documents/projects/YEM/YEEP%20II%20-%20Signed%20Project%20Document.pdf [Accessed 17.04.15].

Unison (2015) Call Centres. Available: http://www.unison.org.uk/at-work/energy/key-issues/call-centres/the-facts/ [Accessed 16.02.15].

United Nations (2003). World Youth Report 2003. The Global Situation of Young People. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

United Nations (2013). World Population Ageing 2013. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

UNWTO (2014). Tourism Highlights, 2014 Edition. United Nations World Tourism Organisation.

Vida (2013) Personalmangel im Tourismus. Schlechte Arbeitsbedingungen von Arbeitgebern verursacht. Austria: VIDA. Available: http://www.vida.at/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=S03/Page/Index&n=S03_18.1.a&cid=1359977416554 [Accessed 22.09.13].

Vida (2015). Startschuss für ein modernes Entlohnungssystem. Available: http://www.vida.at/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=S03/Page/Index&n=S03_0.a&cid=1430965804456.

Vogel, D. (2005) The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility, Washington, DC.: Brookings Institution Press Inc.

Voigt, J. (2011) Beyond Wall Street: 'Occupy' protests go global. Available: http://www.edition.cnn.com/2011/10/07/business/wall-street-protest-global/ [Accessed 12.04.15].

Walmsley, A. (2004) Assessing staff turnover: A view from the English Riviera. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6 275-287. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.488

Walmsley, A. (2008) The Impact of Tourism SME Placements on Career Intentions. PhD, Leeds Metropolitan University.

Walmsley, A. (2012a) Decent work and tourism wages: An international comparison. Progress in Responsible Tourism, 1 (2).

Walmsley, A. (2012b). Tourism Intelligence Monitor. ATHE Report on Tourism Higher Education in the UK.

Walmsley, A. & Partington, S. N. (2014). A stakeholder approach to working conditions in the tourism and hospitality sector. 2nd International Hospitality & Tourism Conference, 2014 Penang, Malaysia. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17390-16

Walmsley, A., Thomas, R. & Jameson, S. (2012) Internships in SMEs and career intentions. Journal of Education and Work, 25 (2), 185-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2011.573774

Warhurst, C. & Nickson, D. (2007) Employee experience of aesthetic labour in retail and hospitality. Work, Employment and Society, 21 (1), 103-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017007073622

Warhurst, C., Nickson, D., Witz, A. & Cullen, A. M. (2000) Aesthetic labour in interactive service work: Some case study evidence from the 'New Glasgow'. Service Industries Journal, 20 (3), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060000000029

Weatherley, K. & Tansik, D. (1993) Tactics used by customer-contact workers: Effects of role stress, boundary spanning and control. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 4 (3), 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564239310041643

Widener, P. (2009) Oil tourism: Disasters and destinations in Ecuador and the Philippines. Sociological Inquiry, 79 (3), 266-288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.2009.00290.x

Williamson, I., King Jr, J., Lepak, D. & Sarma, A. (2010) Firm reputation, recruitment web sites, and attracting applicants. Human Resource Management Journal, 49 (4), 669-687. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20379

Witsil, F. (2014). Call center jobs increase as more return from overseas. USA Today, 4th August 2014.

Wood, R. C. (1997) Working in Hotels and Catering, London: Routledge.

Woods, R. & Kavanagh, R. (1994) Gender discrimination and sexual harassment as experienced by hospitality industry managers. Cornell HRA Quarterly, 35 (1), 16-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-8804(94)90059-0

Wunder, S. (2000) Ecotourism and economic incentives - An empirical approach. Ecological Economics, 32 465-479. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00119-6

Yagil, D. (2008) When the customer is wrong: A review of research on aggression and sexual harassment in service encounters. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 13 (2), 141-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.03.002


Chapter 3 The Nature of Youth Employment [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Youth Employment in Tourism and Hospitality

Chapter 3 The Nature of Youth Employment [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback format [Details] Available as an inspection copyPrice: £37.99Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy