Chapter 11 Complexity in the tourism and hospitality online purchasing process
Published: Sept 2021
Component type: chapter
Published in: Tourism Dynamics
Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635932-4921
This chapter examines the complexity of attributes affecting the online purchasing process in tourism and hospitality. Eight elements (i.e. marketing activities, perceived benefits, perceived risks, over-choice confusion, price issues, quality issues, consumer trust and intention to purchase) are identified as of principal importance. Based on a sample of 735 holidaymakers, the empirical findings stress the role of perceived benefits in e-marketing activities; the significance of perceived risks for price and quality issues; and the importance of over-choice confusion to e-shopping. The research employs Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), an innovative technique in tourism. QCA results are compared to regression highlighting the possible superiority of this non-linear mixed method against correlational analysis. The chapter progresses from fit to predictive validity, something that only a handful of studies have employed in tourism and hospitality, and generally in the service sector. It also discusses several theoretical, methodological and managerial implications, whilst it contributes in both, theoretical and methodological domains.
- Nikolaos Pappas, University of Sunderland (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8838-017X
- Andreas Papatheodorou, University of the Aegean (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9484-7517
For the source title:
- Nikolaos Pappas, University of Sunderland (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8838-017X
- Anna Farmaki, Cyprus University of Technology (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9996-5632
Pappas & Papatheodorou, 2021
Pappas, N. & Papatheodorou, A. (2021) "Chapter 11 Complexity in the tourism and hospitality online purchasing process" In: Pappas, N. & Farmaki, A. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635932-4949
Aaker, D., & Day, G. (1990), Marketing Research. New York: Wiley.
Ahn, T.D., Ryu, S., & Han, I. (2004), The impact of the online and offline features on the user acceptance of Internet shopping malls, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 3, 405-20.
Allison, P.D. (2001), Missing Data. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Amaro, S., & Durate. P. (2015), An integrative model of consumers' intentions to purchase travel online, Tourism Management, 46, 64-79.
Armstrong, J. (2012), Illusions in regression analysis, International Journal of Forecasting, 28:3, 689-94.
Baggio, R. (2008), Symptoms of complexity in a tourism system, Tourism Analysis, 13(1), 1-20.
Bente, G., Baptist, O., & Leuschner, H. (2012), To buy or not to buy: Influence of seller photos and reputation on buyer trust and purchase behaviour, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 70(1), 1-13.
Bhatnagar, N., Lurie, N., & Zeithaml, V. (2003), Reasoning about online and offline service experiences: The role of domain-specificity in the formation of service expectations, Advances in Consumer Research, 30, 383-84.
Bjork, P., & Kauppinen-Raisanen, H. (2012), A netnographic examination of travelers' online discussions of risks, Tourism Management Perspectives, 1(2-3), 65-71.
Bore, I., Rutherford, C., Glasgow, S., Taheri, B., & Anthony, J. (2017), A systematic literature review on eWOM in the hotel industry: Current trends and suggestions for future research, Hospitality and Society, 7(1), 63-85.
Boukas, N., & Ziakas, V. (2014), A chaos theory perspective of destination crisis and sustainable tourism development in islands: the case of Cyprus, Tourism Planning and Development, 11(2), 191-208.
Bruce, N., Haruvy, E., & Rao, R. (2004), Seller rating, price, and default in online auctions, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(4), 37-50.
Chai, A. (2012), Consumer specialization and the demand for novelty: A reconsideration of the links and implications for studying fashion cycles in tourism, Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, 232(6), 678-701.
Chikweche, T. & Fletcher, R. (2010), Understanding factors that influence purchases in subsistence markets, Journal of Business Research, 63(6), 643-50.
Dholakia, U.M. (2001), A motivational process model of product involve- ment and consumer risk perception, European Journal of Marketing, 35(11-12), 1340-60.
Dibb, S., & Simkin, L. (2013), Marketing Essentials. Cengage Learning.
Dylan, S. (2017), On shipwrecks and sea nymphs: Fragments of Maltese hospitality, Hospitality and Society, 7(1), .3-18.
Evans, J.R., & Mathur, A. (2005), The value of online surveys, Internet Research, 15(2), 195-219.
Faulkner, B. & Russell, R. (2000), Turbulence, chaos and complexity in tourism systems: A research direction for the new millennium, In R. Faulkner, G. Moscardo, & E. Laws (Ed.), Tourism in the 21st Century: Lessons from experience (pp.328-49). London: Continuum.
Faulkner, B., & Russell, R. (1997), Chaos and complexity in tourism: In search of a new perspective, Pacific Tourism Review, 1, 93-102.
Garbarino, E., and Maxwell, S. (2010), Consumer response to norm- breaking pricing events in e-commerce, Journal of Business Research, 63(9-10), 1066-72.
Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., & Straub, D.W. (2003), Trust and TAM in online shopping: An integrated model, MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 51-90.
Gigerenzer, G., & Brighton, H. (2009), Homo heuristics: Why biased minds make better inferences, Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 107-43.
Gross, M.J., & Brown, G. (2008), An empirical structural model of tourists and places: progressing involvement and place attachment into tourism, Tourism Management, 29(6), 1141-51.
Hong, I.B., & Cha, H.S. (2013), The mediating role of consumer trust in an online merchant in predicting purchase intention, International Journal of Information Management, 33(6), 927-39.
Hong, I.B., & Cho, H. (2011), The impact of consumer trust on attitudinal loyalty and purchase intentions in B2C e-marketplaces: Intermediary trust vs seller trust, International Journal of Information Management, 31(5), 469-79.
Hong, Z., & Yi, L. (2012), Research on the influence of perceived risk in consumer on-line purchasing decision, Physics Procedia, 24(B), 1304-10.
Hyun, M. (2006), The effects of tourism information web site factors on usefulness, web site attitude and behavior. PhD Thesis, Seoul: Sejong University.
Jansen, B.J., Ciamacca, C.C., & Spink, A. (2008), An analysis of travel information searching on the web, Journal of Information Technology and Tourism, 10(2), 101-18.
Keating, B.W., Quazi, A.M., & Kriz, A. (2009), Financial risk and its impact on new purchasing behavior in the online retail setting, Electronic Markets, 19(4), 237-50.
Kellert, S. (1993), In the Wake of Chaos: Unpredictable order in dynamical systems. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kent, R.A., & Argouslidis, P.C. (2005), Shaping business decisions using fuzzy-set analysis, Journal of Marketing Management, 21(5-6), 641-58. Kholoud Al-Qeisi, K., Dennis, C., Alamanos, E., & Jayawardhena, C. (2014), Website design quality and usage behavior: Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2282-90.
Kim, I. (2007), The role of perceived risk on purchase intention in Internet shopping, International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 1(3), 279-88.
Kim, D.J., Donald, L.F., & Rao, H.R. (2008), A trust-based consumer decision-making model in electronic commerce: the role of trust, perceived risk and their antecedents, Decision Support Systems, 44(2), 544-64.
Komiak, S.Y.X., & Benbasat, I. (2006), Understanding customer trust in agent-mediated electronic commerce, web-mediated electronic commerce, and traditional commerce, Information Technology and Management, 5(1-2), 181-207.
Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R., & Bacon, J. (2003), An examination of the relationships between leisure activity involvement and place attachment among hikers along the Appalachian Trail, Journal of Leisure Research, 35(3), 249-73.
Law, R., Leung, R., & Buhalis, D. (2009), Information technology appli- cations in hospitality and tourism: a review of publications from 2005 to 2007, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(5-6), 599-623.
Laws, E. & Prideaux, B. (2005), Crisis management: A suggested typology, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 19(2-3), 1-8.
Leenders, M.A.A.M., & Wierenga, B. (2008), The effect of the marketing- RandD interface on new product performance: The critical role of resources and scope, International Journal of Research in Marketing. 25(1), 56-68.
Liang, T.P., & Jin-Shiang, H. (1998), An empirical study on consumer acceptance of products in electronic markets: a transaction cost model, Decision Support Systems, 24(1), 29-43.
Lichtenstein, D.R., Ridgway, N.M., & Netemeyer, R.G. (1993), Price perceptions and consumer shopping behavior: a field study, Journal of Marketing Research, 30(2), 234-45.
Longest, K., and Vaisey, S. (2008), Fuzzy: A program for performing Qualitative Comparative Analyses (QCA) in STATA, The STATA Journal, 8(1), 79-104.
Marom, O., and Seidmann, A. (2011), Using 'last-minute' sales for vertical differentiation on the Internet, Decision Support Systems, 51(4), .894-903.
McDonald, J.R. (2009), Complexity science: an alternative world view for understanding sustainable tourism development, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(4), 455-71.
Montoya-Weiss, M., Voss, G., & Grewal, D. (2003), Determinants of online channel use and overall satisfaction with a relational, multichannel service provider, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(4), 448-58.
Moran, G., & Muzellec, L. (2017), eWOM credibility on social networking sites: A framework, Journal of Marketing Communications, 23(2), 149-61.
Nerkar, A., & Roberts, P.W. (2004), Technological and product-market experience and the success of new product introductions in the pharmaceutical industry, Strategic Management Journal, 25(8-9), 779-99.
Nilson, T.H. (1995), Chaos Marketing: How to win in a turbulent world. London: McGraw-Hill.
No, E., & Kim, J.K. (2015), Comparing the attributes of online tourism information sources, Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 564-75.
Okazaki, S. (2008), Determinant factors of mobile-based word-of-mouth campaign referral among Japanese adolescents, Psychology and Marketing, 25(8), 714-31.
Olmedo, E., & Mateos, R. (2015), Quantitative characterization of chaordic tourist destination, Tourism Management, 47, 115-26.
Olya, H. G., Gazi, Z. A., Aksal, F. A., & Altinay, M. (2018). Behavioral intentions of disabled tourists for the use of peer-to-peer accommodations: An application of fsQCA. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 436-454.
Ordanini, A., Parasuraman, A., & Rubera, G. (2014), When the recipe is more important than the ingredients: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) of service innovation configurations, Journal of Service Research, 17(2), 134-49.
Pan, B., & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2000), A typology of tourism related web sites: Its theoretical background and implications, Information Technology and Tourism, 3(3-4), 155-66.
Pantano, E., Iazzolino, G., & Migliano, G. (2013), Obsolescence risk in advanced technologies for retailing: A management perspective, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2), 225-33.
Papatheodorou, A. & Pappas, N. (2017), Economic recession, job vulnerability, and tourism decision making: a qualitative comparative analysis', Journal of Travel Research, 56(5), 663-77.
Pappas, N. (2014), The effect of distance, expenditure and culture on the expression of social status through tourism, Tourism Planning and Development, 11(4), 387-404.
Pappas, N. (2015), Marketing hospitality industry in an era of crisis, Tourism Planning and Development. 11(3), 333-49.
Pappas, N. (2017), The effect of marketing activities, benefits, risks, confusion due to over-choice, price, quality and consumer trust on online tourism purchasing, Journal of Marketing Communications, 23(2), 195-218.
Park, J., Gunn, F., & Han, S. (2012), Multidimensional trust building in e-retailing: Cross-cultural differences in trust formation and implications for perceived risk, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(3), 304-12.
Pescher, C., Reichhart, P., & Spann, M. (2014), Consumer decision- making processes in mobile viral marketing campaigns, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(1), 43-54.
Ragin, C.C. (2000), Fuzzy-set Social Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Roberts, S., & Pashler, H. (2000), How persuasive is a good fit? A comment on theory testing, Psychological Review, 107, 358-67.
Russell, R. & Faulkner, B. (2004), Entrepreneurship, chaos and the tourism area lifecycle, Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 556-79.
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2009), Research Methods for Business: A skill- building approach. Chichester: John Wiley.
Sevgin, A., Peristianis, N., & Warner, J. (1996), Residents' attitudes to tourism development: the case of Cyprus, Tourism Management, 17(7), 481-94.
Sigala, M. (2004), Designing experiential websites in tourism and hospitality: A customer-centric value approach, International conference in information and communication technologies in tourism 2004, International Federation of Information Technologies in Tourism (IFITT), 27-29 January, Cairo, Egypt.
Skarmeas, D., Leonidou, C.N., & Saridakis, C. (2014), Examining the role of CSR skepticism using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, Journal of Business Research, 67, 1796-805.
Statista (2016), Worldwide online travel sales volume from 2010 to 2016. http://www.statista.com/statistics/247321/forecast-of-worldwide- online-travel-sales-volume/(accessed 13/04/2018)
Tarnanidis, T., Owusu-Frimpong, N., Nwankwo, S., & Omar, M. (2015), A confirmatory factor analysis of consumer styles inventory: Evidence from Greece, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 164-77.
Taylor, D., & Strutton, D. (2010), Has e-marketing come of age? Modelling historical influences on post-adoption era Internet consumer behaviours, Journal of Business Research, 63(9-10), 950-56.
Van der Meer, R.B., J. Quigley, & J.E. Storbeck. (2005), Using regression analysis to model the performance of UK coastguard centres, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 56(6), 630-41.
Woodside, A.G. (2013), Moving beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithms: Calling for adoption of a paradigm shift from symmetric to asymmetric thinking in data analysis and crafting theory, Journal of Business Research, 66(4), 463-72.
Woodside, A.G. (2014), Embrace•perform•model: Complexity theory, contrarian case analysis, and multiple realities, Journal of Business Research, 67, 2495-503.
Woodside, A.G., & Zhang, M. (2013), Cultural diversity and marketing transactions: Are market integration, large community size, and world religions necessary for fairness in ephemeral exchanges?, Psychology and Marketing, 30(3), 263-76.
Wu, P.L., Yeh, S.S., Huan, T.C., & Woodside, A.G. (2014), Applying complexity theory to deepen service dominant logic: Configural analysis of customer experience-and-outcome assessments of professional services for personal transformations, Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1647-70.
Xiang, Z., Magnini, V.P., & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2015), Information technology and consumer behavior in travel and tourism: Insights from travel planning using the internet, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 244-49.
Xiang, Z., Wöber, K., & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2008), Representation of the online tourism domain in search engines, Journal of Travel Research, 47(2), 137-50.
Yang, T.C., & Lai. H. (2006), Comparison of product bundling strategies on different online shopping behaviors, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 5(4), 295-304.
Zahra, A., & Ryan, C. (2007), From chaos to cohesion - Complexity in tourism structures: An analysis of New Zealand's regional tourism organizations, Tourism Management, 28(3), 854-62.
Zeithaml, V.A. (1988), Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means - end model and synthesis of evidence, Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.
Zhang, K.Z.K., Cheung, C.N.K., & Lee, M.K.O. (2014), Examining the moderating effect of inconsistent reviews and its gender differences on consumers' online shopping decision, International Journal of Information Management, 34(2), 89-98.